Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-11-21 Origin: Site
Classification, characteristics and application of colored spinning
1、 Classification of colored spinning yarn
（1） By color
1. Colored spinning
It uses at least one or more colored fibers (except black fibers) and other fibers of different colors to mix and spin according to different ratios. The produced yarn can show a variety of hazy colors. The spinning process is complex and the technical requirements are high. It is mainly used to produce high-grade knitted outerwear, and a small amount of it is used for color woven fabrics. It is a boutique in color spinning.
2. Grey yarn
Generally, the white fiber and black fiber are mixed for spinning. The proportion of black cotton increases or decreases according to the requirements of the fabric, with the minimum being less than 5% and the maximum being more than 70%. Therefore, it can be divided into dark gray, medium gray and light gray. It is the leading product of color spinning. This kind of colored yarn is mainly used in knitting enterprises, with a large demand, accounting for more than 60% of the production of pure cotton colored yarn. There are also two mixing methods for the products: opening, cleaning and drawing, which are determined according to different mixing proportion.
（2） By composition
1. Cotton colored spinning
The yarn is spun by mixing one or more cotton fibers (including natural colored cotton) of different colors with this white cotton fiber, mixing them in the opening and cleaning or drawing processes according to different ratios, and spinning them through combing and other processes, as the leading product of colored spinning. The blended spinning of natural colored cotton and this white cotton fiber has more environmental protection characteristics, but the product price is expensive, the mechanical indicators such as strength are relatively poor, the color system is single, and the market share is small.
2. Pure chemical fiber colored spinning
Pure chemical fibers are used as raw materials, such as polyester, viscose fiber, Tencel fiber, soybean fiber, Modal fiber, etc., which are blended with one or more chemical fibers of different colors. They are mainly used as yarns for knitted clothing, socks, sweaters and decorative fabrics.
3. Polyester/cotton yarn
It is made of cotton dyed fiber of one or more colors or colored polyester of one or more colors mixed with white cotton fiber or white polyester, and is mainly used as knitting yarn of general varieties. Cotton fibers in polyester/cotton colored spinning are generally not dyed, and polyester fibers are colored fibers. When the proportion of colored polyester fiber mixed in colored spinning is high, separate sliver making and sliver mixing in drawing process are adopted; If the proportion of colored polyester fiber mixed is low, it can be mixed in the opening and cleaning process.
4. Other blended yarn
The raw materials for spinning are mainly cotton or polyester, mixed with various natural fibers, such as silk, wool, cashmere, hemp fiber, etc., and sometimes mixed with some special fibers, such as Tencel fiber, Lycra, soybean fiber, Modal fiber, etc., to form two or more kinds of blended yarn, which is mainly used for high-grade knitted clothing. The proportion of various fibers depends on the requirements of the fabric, and the ultimate goal is to make the clothing soft, comfortable, beautiful, and not deformed.
（3） According to process characteristics
It is named according to different process design and special style of appearance, such as segment colored yarn, segment dyed yarn, AB yarn, dot yarn, snowflake yarn, bamboo yarn, core spun yarn, and wrapped yarn. This kind of yarn and cloth style generally presents a special style and visual effect, has fashionable and personalized characteristics, conforms to the trend, is more and more developed and applied, the growth rate of market demand is high, and the added value of the product is higher than that of conventional color spinning.
（4） By yarn structure
1. Development status of "uniform structure" colored yarn
The so-called "uniform structure" color spinning products refer to the spinning of two or more kinds of fibers with different colors after blending in the opening and cleaning process or sliver blending in the drawing process. The colored fibers are evenly distributed inside and outside the yarn body, and have the uniform morphological and structural characteristics of traditional yarns, such as linen grey yarn and snowflake yarn. The key to this kind of color spinning is to control the mixing of fibers with different colors. The cotton bale (pile) mixing method on the opening and cleaning machine can make all kinds of colored fibers distributed in all parts of the yarn, which has a three-dimensional cotton mixing effect; On the drawing frame, the sliver mixing mode makes all kinds of colored fibers mix longitudinally, which can better control the mixing ratio of all kinds of fibers, but the three-dimensional effect of cotton mixing is slightly poor. In addition to the common cotton colored yarn and polyester/cotton colored yarn, the development of multi-component and functional colored yarn has been paid more and more attention to. In recent years, abundant and diversified regenerated cellulose fibers (such as Tencel fiber, Modal fiber, bamboo pulp fiber, wood pulp fiber, Shengma fiber, etc.), regenerated protein modified fibers (such as soybean protein composite fiber, milk protein modified fiber, silkworm pupa protein modified fiber, etc.), The appearance of differential synthetic fibers (such as flat polyester, honeycomb polyester, jade fiber, cold mica fiber, hollow fiber, etc.) and functional synthetic fibers (such as moisture absorption and perspiration fiber, antibacterial fiber, hollow fiber, composite fiber, bamboo charcoal fiber, etc.) provides materials for the development of multi-component and functional colored yarn, enriches the variety of colored yarn, and improves the added value of products. However, how to fully show the advantages of various fibers through the reasonable collocation of fiber components (for example, when the blending ratio of functional fibers reaches, the corresponding functions of functional colored spinning can be highlighted), and how to ensure the development of high-quality multi-component colored spinning is an important direction for the development of future colored spinning. At present, the market for multi-color spinning rarely conducts in-depth research on the optimal blend ratio of various fibers, and is often driven by interests to add fewer new fibers to attract consumers' attention and ignore product quality. In addition, for multi-component color spinning process, it is difficult to control the production process due to the difference of fiber properties of each component. How to formulate appropriate processes for different raw material combinations is crucial to improve product quality.
2. Development status of "differential structure" colored yarn
As consumers pursue personalized, fashionable and diversified demands for fabrics, the traditional "uniform structure" color spinning can no longer meet the market demand, and there is an upsurge to develop "differential structure" color spinning. "Differential structure" color spinning refers to the random or regular differentiation or significant change of yarn color and structure through the control of color spinning processing process, such as roving "Siro" color yarn, AB two-color yarn, AB "slub" color yarn, "Siyu" color yarn, rumple color yarn, segment color yarn, rainbow yarn, color dot color yarn, etc.
Roving "Siro" colored yarn adopts the traditional spinning "Siro" spinning principle in the roving stage, that is, the single roving whisker and the end sliver are fed into the roving machine together, and then a roving whisker is obtained and spun on the spinning machine. The yarn evenness is large, which is suitable for producing popular fabrics with rough cloth surface. The supervision and control of the production process shall be strengthened to prevent large quality variation.
AB bicolor yarn refers to the yarn directly spun by feeding two rovings of different colors into the spinning frame at the same time, which has the bicolor effect of ply yarn. It is more difficult to control the color difference compared with other colored spinning yarns, such as blended yarn. AB "slub" colored yarn uses AB two-color yarn and slub production principle to make the yarn have both the style of AB colored yarn and the effect of slub. Like AB bicolor yarn, the difficulty of spinning lies in process monitoring, and the phenomenon that spinning is still in progress after single roving breakage must be prevented.
"Siyu" colored yarn is made by drawing colored yarn embedded in the drawing frame with rollers at different speeds, and the colored yarn segments obtained are combined with other slivers and then spun through roving and spinning processes, finally making the yarn body contain multiple segments along the yarn length direction
Color yarn segment appearing at machine interval. Xinchang Color Textile Co., Ltd. has successfully developed this product. The style of "Silk Rain" colored yarn can change the thickness, color, density and length of colored yarn segments in "Silk Rain" colored yarn by changing the fed yarn, sliver count, fixed weight, color, number of pieces, the amount of top roller pressure of the drafting roller, and the spacing between the drafting rollers.
Similar to the production principle of "Silk Rain" colored yarn, there are also textured colored yarn. The textured yarn is spun from the textured roving. The textured roving is formed by the combination of auxiliary spinning and roving with certain color contrast at the entrance of the roving. The textured yarn shows uneven evenness, and the appearance of the yarn is winded and attached with intermittent spinning lines with certain color contrast, which looks like a sleeping silkworm. Xuzhou Xinchang Textile Co., Ltd. has successfully developed this product.
Segmental colored yarn is made of more than two kinds of raw materials. It is continuously fed through the main roving from the rear bell mouth of the roller in the spinning frame, and the auxiliary roving is intermittently fed from the rear bell mouth of the roller in the spinning frame (the rear roller operates intermittently). The auxiliary roving and the main roving are mixed between the middle and rear rollers, and formed after drafting. The color along the axial direction of the yarn is distributed intermittently, with a strong three-dimensional sense. During the development process, the key is to prevent color difference and reduce the number of strands caused by roving breakage. The production principle of section colored yarn has also been further applied to the development of Rainbow Yarn. The difference is that Rainbow Yarn uses two or more color slivers, so that each color of yarn gradually changes, and the colors are subtly connected, forming a kind of looming illusion appearance, which conforms to the current trend of advocating individuality. For example, Xinchang Color Textile Co., Ltd. has developed cotton Rainbow Yarn using two different colors of gold and silver silk at the same time.
Dotted yarn can be obtained in two ways. The first method is to modify the carding machine for producing ordinary colored yarn, and adjust the process to prepare colored dots (generally referring to colored fiber balls with good roundness, uniform size and solid fiber balls), then mix a certain proportion of colored dots in the cotton cleaning process, and finally spin them according to the conventional spinning process. The second way is to combine the sliver mixed with granular color dots and color sliver and spin them, so that the colorful ideas can be attached to the yarn and organically combine the mottled nostalgia and fashion. The key to the preparation of color dot yarn is the control of dot size, evenness and fastness to adhesion in the yarn.
With the continuous improvement of the spinning processing level, various new types of "differential structure" color spinning are gradually emerging, which will make color spinning products more colorful.
（5） By spinning method
The color spun yarn obtained by using different yarn processing technologies mainly includes traditional ring spinning, improved ring spinning (such as compact spinning, siro spinning, etc.), rotor spinning and air jet vortex spinning. Ring spinning is the most conventional form of color spinning, and is the dominant spinning technology of color spinning. Rotor spinning and air jet vortex spinning, as typical representatives of new spinning technologies, integrate roving, spinning, winding and winding, and have many advantages such as high speed, high automation process, environmental friendliness, etc. The application of rotor spinning and air jet vortex spinning in the development of color spinning will greatly improve the processing efficiency of traditional color spinning and enrich the variety of color spinning products.
2、 Production characteristics of colored yarn
1. Environmental protection of colored yarn
This is relative to the total amount of pollution of the entire social environment. At present, there are three ways to change the color of textiles: first, package yarn dyeing, 100% water over dyeing solution; The second is fabric dyeing, which is also 100% water passing; The third is fiber dyeing before color spinning, and blending according to color during spinning. If the average gray level is about 50%, the total social pollution will be reduced by about 50%.
2. Technicality of color spinning
Color spinning reverses the traditional textile process. Cotton, wool, silk, hemp, chemical fiber, etc. are dyed first and then spun
There are certain technical requirements for improvement of application and spinnability; The proofing shall be "accurate" and "provincial", and the proofing staff shall have certain technical level; The deviation of dyeing color and shade has certain technical requirements for dyeing operators; There are certain technical requirements for production management for special varieties of textiles such as Duan Caisha; The fashion and interpretation of color have certain technical requirements for product design
3. Challenge of colored spinning
Dye spinning should rely on team cooperation, and pay attention to the rapid response under cooperation throughout the whole process. It is a huge challenge to the organizational execution, the sense of responsibility and ability of managers, and the tackling of new materials, new products and new technologies. It can be said that a team enterprise without challenger quality cannot spin colored yarn well. Only an excellent enterprise can be qualified to enter the field of colored yarn, and can make progress and succeed in continuous challenges. Constantly challenging ourselves and difficulties is the power source of enterprise scientific and technological innovation, management improvement, transformation and upgrading.
4. Process particularity of colored spinning
The difference between the color performance of the fabric obtained from color spinning and the traditional white cloth and cheese yarn dyeing is that it is a process of dyeing loose fibers to achieve "dyeing first, spinning later". The production of colored yarn covers two processes of dyeing and spinning, and its production characteristics are as follows.
Yarn dyed cotton yarn cloth (yarn dyed cloth) clothing home textile
Color spun cotton yarn cloth (color woven cloth) clothing home textile (color spun yarn)
(1) Generally, colored yarn is "spun first, then dyed", while colored yarn is generally dyed on the fiber (some are sliver dyed), and then spun, which is more than the general spinning process, with more technical difficulties, complex management and more labor.
(2) Different raw materials and colors are used for various combinations to form new products with various shapes, styles and wearing properties, which are suitable for small batch and multi variety product development.
(3) The content of colored fiber is only a part of colored spinning, and the rear fabric no longer needs dyeing processing, which is beneficial to downstream users for cleaner production to a certain extent. If the original solution is used to dye the fiber spinning, the traditional process is changed, and the emission free dyeing can be realized, which solves the dyeing pollution from the source. According to incomplete statistics, from spinning to weaving, color spinning can reduce nearly 1/3 of wastewater discharge compared with other processes, and has obvious advantages in saving energy such as electricity and steam.
3、 Application of colored spinning
Colored spinning is widely used in the fields of circular knitting machines, flat knitting machines, shuttle looms and shuttleless looms. Color spun fabrics are suitable for manufacturing
For underwear, casual wear, sportswear, business wear.
Colored spinning presents natural colors. In the spinning process, fibers of different colors are fully and evenly mixed to form colored yarn with unique color mixing effect, which presents the effect of "space mixing". The color is transparent, rich, and has hierarchical changes, rich in three-dimensional sense, thus producing the desired artistic effect. After being made into clothing, the color of color spun fabric is implicit, natural and has a strong hazy feeling. This natural and natural style has been loved by European and American countries and domestic fashion people with high quality of life. It is widely used in the field of clothing and home textile, reflecting the personalized, diversified and fashionable consumption demand. In addition, in the process of development and application of colored yarn, combining with the interpretation of popular colors, it can provide a steady stream of innovative products, which will bring unlimited innovation space to clothing brands and provide strong impetus for the birth of new clothing.